Creatine monohydrate is probably the most popular legal substances used as a performance enhancer by bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts.
Its effects have been proven time and time again; it work wonders from a performance enhancing perspective, there are close to no side-effects, and it's extremely cheap.
Over the last ten years, we have seen a lot of new
A word of warning before we get to all the different versions is
Micronized creatine is creatine that has particles up to 20 times smaller than normal creatine monohydrate. Smaller particles increase the surface area which makes it is easier, faster and more complete for mixing (More soluble that is). It has been suggested that creatine monohydrate sits in the gut longer than micronized creatine. Micronized Creatine is basically a very fine powder form of creatine monohydrate, and because of this, it dissolves better and faster.
Benefits to the end user are that micronized creatine supposedly leaves the gut quicker causing no stomach upset or discomfort. There are a lot of claims that absorption of micronized creatine is better than that of creatine monohydrate. I cannot find any scientific studies to back these claims, though. The short version is that this is the same stuff as
If I can get micronized creatine for the same price per serving as creatine monohydrate (and given the serving size is the same), I would choose micronized creatine.
CREATINE ETHYL ESTER (CEE)
Creatine Ethyl Ester is creatine with an added ester molecule to its structure.
Creatine Ethyl Ester (CEE) is (was) believed to have a better absorption rate, Bioavailability and a longer half-life in the body than regular creatine monohydrate. Scientific studies do however, not confirm this to be true. There should according to various studies, not be any benefits to CEE over normal creatine monohydrate.
In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power. Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed to the training protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen.
Later it was shown to actually be less effective than creatine monohydrate:
This study indicates that the half-life of CEE in blood is on the order of one minute, suggesting that CEE may hydrolyze too quickly to reach muscle cells in its ester form.
If you read up on people’s experience with this, it’s a different story. Lots of people really seem to like this stuff.
Today, I would not choose creatine ethyl ester over normal monohydrate. One thing is to get the same result from one of the new
CREATINE ETHYL ESTER MALATE
As Creatine Ethyl Ester gained a lot of attention in the early days, it didn't take long for supplement manufacturers to further develop an even “better” version of CEE by adding a salt to it.
Just like CEE was hyped to be superior to monohydrate in terms of absorption and bioavailability, the same story is sold to us, with information that CEEM is superior to CEE in terms of these two aspects.
However, it turns out that Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate does not exists!
BSN develops, manufactures, and sells nutritional supplements. Rivera alleges that BSN has sold tens of thousands of bottles of Cellmass, Nitrix, and NO Xplode based on false labels and false advertising. Rivera alleges that BSN has and continues to proclaim that its products contain a supposedly new and improved form of creatine called“Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate” or “CEM3.” Rivera claims that not only did the productsnot contain CEM3, but that CEM3 does not exist and is impossible to manufacture.
There are lots and lots of discussions on this topic on various forums. Here is a key part
Welcome to the Supplement Settlement Website. The Defendant, Bio-Engineered Supplements & Nutrition, Inc. (?BSN?) develops, manufactures and distributes nutritional supplements. The Plaintiffs filed a class action Lawsuit against BSN, alleging that BSN made misrepresentations on its product labels and other marketing materials with regard to the existence of Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate (?CEM3?) in BSN?s products.
BSN denies any wrongdoing or any liability whatsoever, and no court or
The Parties have determined that it is in their best interests to settle the Action on the terms generally discussed below in order to avoid the expense,
The Honorable James V. Selna of the United States District Court, Central District of California, has determined that the Action should be certified as a class action for settlement purposes only, with Plaintiffs as the class representatives, and has granted preliminary approval of the Settlement subject to a Final Approval Hearing discussed below.
The Settlement will be distributed in the form of rebates and refunds. As part of the proposed Settlement, class members who submit valid Claim Forms and proof of purchase of eligible products are entitled to a refund check during the refund period. Refunds of $15.00 for each CEM3 product purchased during the Class Period, with a maximum refund limit of $30.00, will be available to those persons who purchased an eligible BSN product labeled as containing Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate, or CEM3, including, but not limited
Rebates will be available beginning no more than 60 days after the Final Approval Hearing. For a period of three years, class members who submit a $5.00 mail-in rebate coupon from a bottle of Cellmass and/or a $3.00 mail-in rebate coupon from a bottle of Nitrix sold in the United States, its territories or at any United States military facility or exchange for personal use and not for resale from November 6, 2003 through July 6, 2009 can receive a rebate check from the Claims Administrator. Additionally, for a period of two years, class members who submit a $3.00 mail-in rebate coupon from a bottle of N.O.-Xplode sold in the United States, its territories or at any United States military facility or exchange for personal use and not for resale from November 6,
Counsel for the Plaintiffs is James Hardin of Call, Jensen & Ferrell.
Please note that the deadline to file a refund claim in this matter is September 22, 2009. Any and all claims received after such date will be late and will be barred from participation in the refund settlement distribution. Should you have any questions, please contact the toll-free number below.The rebate period will commence no later than 60 days after the Final Approval Hearing. Check back to learn more details of the rebate program.
Just do a google search for on this and you will get lots and lots of results. Mark Tallon also shared a couple of lines on this, which you can read here.
What is really interesting if of course, that some companies continue to sell Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate – Not sure how this is possible but bulkpowders.co.uk, nutrivitashop.com, body-attack.com and
Personally, I wouldn’t touch any of the supplements named Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate with a ten-foot pole.
Creatine Serum is simply a fancy name for a liquid version of creatine monohydrate. This stuff got a lot of hype a couple of years back, where supplement manufacturers claimed this to be superior to powdered creatine monohydrate. It is typically promoted with the following benefits when compared to normal creatine monohydrate:
- Absorbed faster and more efficiently than powdered creatine monohydrate.
- Less bloating than what you would get from traditional powders creatine monohydrate
- Being easier on the kidneys, and
- No need for a loading phase when using liquid version of creatine monohydrate.
There are four obvious things to keep in mind here;
- Creatine Serum is far more expensive than normal powdered creatine monohydrate
- Powedered Creatine monohydrate is mixed with water before ingestion; the obvious question to ask is, what the difference between this mix and liquid creatine is?
- There is a complete lack of scientific studies confirming the claims listed above.
- It is clearly not as popular as it were back in the days after it was released.
In addition to this, it has been highlighted several times that creatine is unstable in liquid for a longer period of time. It will simply be broken down to creatinine which has been discussed above.
One study from Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research in 2004 found it’s hyped promise of being a better option than creatine monohydrate to be false (at least from a cycle sprint improving perspective) (CP for Creatine powder and CS for creatine serum);
A 7-week washout period separated the 2 supplementation protocols. Subjects’ total work (9.6%) and peak power (3.4%) in the cycle sprint improved significantly (p < 0.05) after loading with CP, but there was little change after loading with CS. The present data support previous research findings showing an
This is definitely interesting, but
In the present study, creatine monohydrate supplementation (20 grams/day for 5-days) resulted in a 30.8% increase in free creatine content, a 22.0%increase in PC content, and a 22.6% increase muscle total creatine content. These findings are consistent withmany studies reporting that creatine monohydrate supplementation increases muscle creatine and/or phosphagenavailability.
MMUSA has marketed CS as a more effective form of creatine than creatine monohydrate powder.
Results of the present study do not support MMUSA’s marketing claims. In this regard, while CMsupplementation promoted significant increases in muscle creatine content, low dose CS supplementation (i.e.,the recommended amount
With this in mind, I think it's fair to say that Creatine Serum is a waste of money. You will be better off going for powdered creatine. It's cheaper, and proven to work. I would not spend any money on liquid creatine / creatine serum.
Effervescent creatine was also a hyped alternative to creatine monohydrate years ago, where it was promoted as having a better absorption rate than regular monohydrate. Effervescent means bubbling; as far as I can tell, effervescent creatine was simply creatine combined with some bicarbonate (which would give the bubbling effect) and some sugar which is probably why people agree the taste is better than normal creatine monohydrate. However, promoted benefits of better absorption
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from a release of the gas.
Some people over at bodybuilding.com suggested to simply mix
I have found several threads on various forums, but
TRI- AND DI CREATINE MALATE
Tri-creatine malate is an alternate form in which three molecules of creatine are bound to one molecule of malic acid (malate). Just like all the other alternatives to normal creatine monohydrate, Tri-Creatine Malate is promoted as a more soluble and absorbent,
Creatine monohydrate is creatine with a water molecule. Creatine anhydrous is creatine monohydrate with without the water molecule – pure creatine that is. The short version is; it provides more pure creatine than creatine monohydrate, it’s usually sold in capsules, and since it takes a chemical process to remove the water molecule,
CREATINE MAGNESIUM CHELATE
CREATINE KRE-ALKALYN: BUFFERED CREATINE
Kre-Alkalyn® supplementation does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations in comparison to creatine monohydrate
creatine-AKG is creatine attached to an alpha-ketoglutarate molecule. AKG is a
alpha-ketoglutarate infiltrates the Krebs cycle. This provides great potential as a creatine transporter and possibly reduces fatigue.
Creatine HCL, short for creatine hydrochloride is made by attaching a hydrochloride group to creatine. The idea here is that by attaching a hydrochloride group to
Creatine citrate is creatine bonded to citric acid. This form of creatine is supposed to provide better absorption, but there isn’t a whole lot of scientific evidence to support that notion. Creatine citrate is made up of only about 40 percent creatine, making it an inefficient way to deliver creatine.
creatine nitrate is creatine bound to a nitrate salt, often listed as CreNitrate.
I have covered Nitrates before here on muscles.zone. It’s a chemical compound which, when ingested, is converted nitrite which is then converted into Nitric Oxide. Nitric Oxide has been studied heavily from a bodybuilding
Creatine Pyruvate is Creatine bonded with Pyruvic Acid. This stuff is created by the same company behind CreaPure (listed above) called AlzChem. Supplementing with Creatine Pyruvate instead of creatine monohydrate, has been shown to produce higher creatine plasma concentrations when compared to creatine monohydrate and tri-creatine citrate.
The findings suggest that different forms of creatine result in
In addition to this, there are two additional, but contradicting studies on the subject of Creatine Pyruvate. The conclusion of the first study reads the following:
It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.
which contradicts somewhat with the results from this study, which reads;
It is concluded that one week of creatine-pyruvate supplementation at a rate of 7 g x d -1 does not beneficially impact on either endurance capacity or intermittent sprint performance in cyclists.
So yeah, we are left a bit in the dark with creatine pyruvate. Personally, I