As promised in the post, I will try to summarize the important information about the new and popular (and now banned – see more below) substance AMP Citrate, also known as DMBA, 2-Amino-4-Methylpentane, 4-methyl-2-pentylamine, 4- Amino-2-Methylpentane and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine. First of all, I have posted about DMBA several times before, here on this muscles.zone. AMP Citrate is used in several supplements today, specially in PWO’s and fat burners. I have covered the following PWO’s that contain AMP Citrate:
In this post, I wrote about the recent ban of DMBA in NZ and in this post I will take a closer look at the details about this supplement. Now as promised in the last post, here is a list of all supplements I have been able to find, that contains AMP Citrate:
[column size=one_half position=first ]
Supplements With AMP Citrate
Redline White Heat
Contraband – Iron Forged Nutrition
MD2 Meltdown – VPX (Vital Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
Evol – Genomyx LLC
AMP Citrate – Genomyx LLC
Decimate Amplified – Genomyx LLC
Oxyfit Xtreme – planetary nutrition.com
Synetherm – Panetary nutrition.com
AMPitropin – Lecheek Nutrition
AMPilean – Lecheek Nutrition
OxyTHERMPro – deNOVOLABS
OxyphenXR AMP’D – Beta Labs Ltd.
Pre War – Body War
The One 2.0 – BPM Labs
Annihilate – BPM Labs
DNPX – Pro Supps
OptiBurn AMPED – Platinum Labs
Thermoje – Neogenix
LipoRush – BPM Labs
Cannibal Inferno – Chaos and Pain
Adipodex – Nutrex Research
Raze – Kaizen
Prodigy XT – PNI
HyperMax – Performax Labs
Cannibal Ferox – Chaos and Pain (V2.0)
Dedicated Nutrition – Unstoppable (labeled Ampheta-Tea)[/column]
[column size=one_half position=last ]Just like we have seen it happen with lots of lots of supplements that used to contain DMAA, I suspect we slowly will see revamped versions of these supplements, where DMBA will be the missing ingredient. Usually the name, container design, version, and supplement facts remain exactly the same, just without the key ingredient, that really made the supplements what they are – in this case, DMBA. I assume its an easy way to keep sales running.
Is AMP Citrate a Completely new substance?
Not really; but as a substance used in fitness supplements, it is.
AMP Citrate was mentioned in two animal studies from the 1940s;
These two small animal studies provide preliminary evidence that, as its structure would suggest, DMBA has pressor effects and is somewhat less potent than DMAA.
The first time I heard about it in a supplement was when Driven Sports released their followup supplement to the heavily debated PWO called Craze[/column]
The followup supplement to Craze from Driven Sports was named Frenzy and this is where AMP Citrate really caught people’s attention. The announced it on Facebook April 1st. 2014:
For UK and European folks, Frenzy is NOW AVAILABLE at Predator Nutrition! (This is not an April Fool’s)
It’s interesting to see how this was only available for UK and Europear folks.
I am not sure why they went about it this way, but I guess there are some legal reasons behind it, as there clearly was a market for the product in US. But supplements containing new substances are released all the time, so why did Frenzy get so much attention, and why did a lot of other supplement developers follow suit and also started to use AMP Citrate in their supplements?
First of all, I think the people who had tried Craze were anxiously waiting for a replacement product. Driven Sports stopped the production of Craze, after heavy media attention due to scientific studies alleging that Craze contained a substance with a chemical structure very similar to that of Meth Amphetamine. So, it’s needless to say that Craze worked – It was probably somewhat like a legal OTC meth substitute. But production stopped, and no “PWO” on the market would give any effect remotely similar to that of Craze. Lots of people were hooked and deliberately ignorant to the supplement facts of Craze.
So when Driven Sports put Frenzy on the market, people started to debate in online forums right away. Although the opinions were shattered, in general people seemed eager to get a copy of Frenzy. Reviews started to show up here and there and they were mostly positive. People quickly realized that AMP Citrate was the thing that made it work the way it did.
With the immediate client attention, right after release, along with lots of positive reviews, this naturally sparked an interest with competing supplement developing companies, and that’s when we started to see one supplement after the other with AMP Citrate on the list.
DS Introduced 4-Methyl-2-Pentanamine Citrate (Pouchung Tea) (Pentergy)
DS didnt list it as AMP Citrate on the supplement fact list on Frenzy. It was listed as 4-Methyl-2-Pentanamine Citrate (Pouchung Tea) (Pentergy). The same is true for several other supplements released after the Frenzy release, that also contain AMP Citrate.
[column size=one_half position=first ]So whats the deal with Petong Tea – does AMP Citrate actually come from Petong Tea? Well there is two old Chinese studies claiming that Petong Tea has been shown to contain AMP Citrate, although in very small doses. In this study, its highlighted that in order to get an equivalent dose of DMBA from Petong Tea, as you would from one standard serving in one of the many PWO’s containing DMBA, would require at least 1,000 kg of Pouchung tea. It’s also noted that synthetic DMBA is easy to manufacture and widely available on the market today.[/column] [column size=one_half position=last ]1,3-Dimethylbutylamine
4-Amino Methylpentane Citrate
For an ingredient to be legally sold as a dietary supplement, it must exist in a naturally occurring substance and have a documented history of use before 1994, the year the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was passed. According to the study the studies highlighted, AMP Citrate exists naturally in Pouchung Tea, and this stuff has been used for, well, a lot of years!
One study in Chinese by Chen and Ou purports to have found DMBA at levels of 0.012 ppm in Pouchung tea as a degradant upon storage; however, an authentic chemical reference standard was not used to confirm the identity or quantity of DMBA in this study. Even if DMBA were found at these very low levels, manufactures would require at least 1000 kg of Pouchung tea to extract 12 mg of DMBA, and humans would not have previously been exposed to the high levels of DMBA that we found in dietary supplements.
Of all the supplements highlighted above containing AMP Citrate, majority of them list it as a part of a prop. blend meaning you wont know how much AMP Citrate you will get from one serving. Based on this study, here is a breakdown of figures:
Table 1. Quantity of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) in dietary supplements
So yeah, DMBA was a new thing in the supplement industry roughly about a year ago. Since then, it been used heavily by several different companies, specially in PWO and fat burning products.
This whole story is very similar to the story of DMAA. For those of you who don’t know, here is the short version (how I remember things at least);
years ago, back in 2005 – 2006, everyone was looking for an alternative to the popular ECA stacks and in spite of lots of attempts, no one really succeeded before Patrick Arnold (ergoPharm) released a new energy supplement called AMP.
Patrick Arnold was (is) a known name in the industry specially due to his involvement with prohormones. You can read his blog here.
So AMP caught peoples attention, and reviews started to show on various forums, with people claiming this was The ECA stack substitute they had been looking for! Seeing a couple of such reviews was normal; every now and then someone will think a certain supplement is the best thing ever, and everyone else wont see any effect what so ever (and you can probably count in, a couple of paid and highly subjective reviews as well). But AMP from ergopharm was different. Extremely positive reviews continued to flood the popular bodybuilding and supplement forums. The thing that made AMP different from the rest was:
Geranamine™ (constituent of Geranium oil)
Or thats how it was listed on the lable. It didnt take long for other supplement manufactures to jump the bandwagon. New fat burners and PWO’s containng this stuff was all over the place. One of the popular ones was Anabolic Xtreme’s energy pill named Stimulant X, where the substance was listed as:
Methylhexamine HCI (from salted Geranium Oil Isolate)
The first couple of lines on Wikipedia for Methylhexamine reads:
Methylhexanamine, commonly known as 1,3-dimethylamylamine or DMAA, was invented and developed by Eli Lilly and Company and was marketed by Lilly as an inhaled nasal decongestant pharmaceutical drug from 1944 until Lilly voluntarily withdrew it from the market in 1983. Methylhexanamine is an indirect sympathomimetic drug.
Since 2006 methylhexanamine has been marketed extensively under many names as an energy-boosting dietary supplement under the claim that it is similar to certain compounds found in geraniums, but its safety has been questioned as a number of adverse events and at least 5 deaths have been associated with methylhexanamine-containing supplements. It has been banned by many sport authorities and governmental agencies.
A year or so after the release and rise in popularity of Stimulant X, Anabolic Xtreme released a new energy supplement named Slim Xtreme or Slim FX. People went even more crazy over this than the former Stimulant X, and for a good reason. After a period of time, it was discovered that Slim Xtreme contained an analog to meth amphetamine, so yeah..
The production of Slim FX was obviously discontinued shortly after.
DMAA, DMBA, AMP, AMP Citrate, Old chinese studies, meth amphetamines, discontinuation – history repeats.
The latest update on DMBA is that the substance now probably wont be used in any new supplements in US, and existing supplements containing DMBA, will be pulled from the shelves, following FDA’s warning and a letter to companies using DMBA in their supplements.
You might still be able to find some DMBA containing supplements on the shelves in your local store, but that wont last long. Considering the similarities to DMAA and the effect people supposedly got from this stuff, I am not surprised that we see this happen.
The interesting question is, what will happen next. Supplement companies will clearly do what they can to find the next ephedrine, DMAA and DMBA alternative. More and more supplements now contain nootropic substances and I think we will see a continuation in this trend, but we will probably also see something new and similar to DMBA / DMAA in a near future that will:
– be based on old chinese studies
– become popular
– get banned
Time will tell. If you have tested DMBA I would love to hear your thoughts on this whole thing, so please drop a comment below.